This study examined which individuals in particular are susceptible or resistant to develop overweight in our current obesogenic environment. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a sample of 1342 people representative of the general population in the Netherlands. Overweight-level (normal body weight ≥ 17.5 BMI [weight in kilograms/height in meters squared, as self-reported] <25) versus overweight ((BMI ≥ 25)) and overeating, as measured by questionnaire, were assessed in relation to dietary restraint, emotional eating and external eating, as assessed with the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. Both dietary restraint and emotional eating moderated the relationship between overconsumption and overweight, but that there was no (positive) main effect or moderator effect for external eating. It was concluded that dietary restraint may prevent people who overeat from getting overweight. An individual's final level of body weight may possibly be determined more by people's tendency toward emotional eating than by people's sensitivity to environmental food cues. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.