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Future of human models for crash analysis

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Author: Wismans, J.S.H.M. · Happee, R. · Hoof, J.F.A.M. van · Lange, R. de
Institution: TNO Wegtransportmiddelen
Source:11th International Pacific Conference on Automotive Engineering (IPC-11) 'Motor vehicles for the 21st century', November 6-9, 2001, Shanghai, China
Identifier: 362704
Article number: Paper IPC2001E225
Keywords: Traffic · biomechanics · impacts · comfort · human models · validation · MADYMO · passive safety · human body models · crash dummies · injury prevention · regulations · test methods · international harmonisation


In the crash safety field mathematical models can be applied in practically all area's of research and development including: reconstruction of actual accidents, design (CAD) of the crash response of vehicles, safety devices and roadside facilities and in support of human impact biomechanical studies. Most models of the human body used up to now in crash simulations are representing crash dummies. Impressive results with such models have been achieved. More recently also models have been developed simulating parts of the real human body as well as models describing the entire human body. This paper describes recent developments in this field with particular emphasis on mathematical models for the real human body. Such models allow the representation of a large set of different body sizes and postures. An overview of human body models developed in the software package MADYMO will be presented. Typical examples of model validation studies based on human volunteer and human cadaver tests will be shown. Areas of future development will be identified.