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High rate (∼7 nm/s), atmospheric pressure deposition of ZnO front electrode for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin-film solar cells with efficiency beyond 15%

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Author: Illiberi, A. · Grob, F. · Frijters, C. · Poodt, P. · Ramachandra, R. · Winands, H. · Simor, M. · Bolt, P.J.
Type:article
Date:2013
Source:Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 8, 21, 1559-1566
Identifier: 484309
doi: doi:10.1002/pip.2423
Keywords: Manufacturing · Atmospheric pressure · Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition · Solar cells · Thin films · Transparent conductive oxides · Zinc oxide · High Tech Systems & Materials · Industrial Innovation · Mechatronics, Mechanics & Materials · TFT - Thin Film Technology · TS - Technical Sciences

Abstract

Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) films have been grown on a moving glass substrate by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. High deposition rates of ∼7 nm/s are achieved at low temperature (200°C) for a substrate speed from 20 to 60 mm/min. ZnO films are highly transparent in the visible range (90%). By a short (∼minute) post-deposition exposure to near-ultraviolet light, a very low resistivity value of 1.6·10 -3 Ω cm for undoped ZnO is achieved, which is independent on the film thickness in the range from 180 to 1200 nm. The photo-enhanced conductivity is stable in time at room temperature when ZnO is coated by an Al2O3 barrier film, deposited by the industrially scalable spatial atomic layer deposition technique. ZnO and Al2O3 films have been used as front electrode and barrier, respectively, in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. An average efficiency of 15.4 ± 0.2% (15 cells) is obtained that is similar to the efficiency of CIGS reference cells in which sputtered ZnO:Al is used as electrode. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Undoped zinc oxide (ZnO) has been grown by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition at atmospheric pressure. After post-deposition exposure to near-ultraviolet light, a low value of resistance (15 Ω/sq) is achieved in films that are highly transparent (90 %) in the visible range. ZnO is used as front electrode in Cu(InGa)Se2 solar cells achieving an efficiency of 15.4%, similar to reference cells with a sputtered Al:ZnO electrode. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.