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The effects of wind and human movement on the heat and vapour transfer properties of clothing

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Author: Parsons, K.C. · Havenith, G. · Holmér, I. · Nilsson, H. · Malchaire, J.
Type:article
Date:1999
Publisher: Elsevier Science Ltd
Place: Exeter, United Kingdom
Institution: TNO Human Factors Research Institute
Source:Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 5, 43, 347-352
Identifier: 235082
Keywords: Clothing · Clothing · Heat stress · Vapour transfer · Atmospheric temperature · Biomechanics · Heat losses · Heat transfer · Mass transfer · Mathematical models · Risk assessment · Standards · Thermal insulation · Thermodynamic properties · Vapor pressure · Wind effects · BASIC computer program · Clothing evaporative heat resistance · Heat stress · Human movement · Occupational hygiene · Vapour transfer properties · Protective clothing · air temperature · body movement · climate · environment · protective clothing · Bias (Epidemiology) · Body Temperature Regulation · Convection · Heat Stress Disorders · Humidity · Models, Biological · Movement · Occupational Diseases · Predictive Value of Tests · Protective Clothing · Reproducibility of Results · Software · Thermodynamics · Wind

Abstract

This paper integrates the research presented in the papers in this special issue of Holmer et al. and Havenith et al. [Holmer, I., Nilsson, H., Havenith, G., Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing convective heat exchange: proposal for improved prediction in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press; Havenith, G., Holmer, I., den Hartog, E. and Parsons, K. C. (1999) Clothing evaporative heat resistance: proposal for improved representation in standards and models. Annals of Occupational Hygiene, in press] to provide a practical suggestion for improving existing clothing models so that they can account for the effects of wind and human movement. The proposed method is presented and described in the form of a BASIC computer program. Analytical methods (for example ISO 7933) for the assessment of the thermal strain caused by human exposure to hot environments require a mathematical quantification of the thermal properties of clothing. These effects are usually considered in terms of 'dry' thermal insulation and vapour resistance. This simple 'model' of clothing can account for the insulation properties of clothing which reduce heat loss (or gain) between the body and the environment and, for example, the resistance to the transfer of evaporated sweat from the skin, which is important for cooling the body in a hot environment. When a clothed person is exposed to wind, however, and when the person is active, there is a potentially significant limitation in the simple model of clothing presented above. Heat and mass transfer can take place between the microclimate (within clothing and next to the skin surface) and the external environment. The method described in this paper 'corrects' static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take account of wind and human movement. It therefore allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers. Copyright (C) 1999 British Occupational Hygiene Society. A method is described that corrects static values of clothing properties to provide dynamic values that take into account wind and human movement. The method allows a more complete representation of the effects of clothing on the heat strain of workers.