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Measurement of the oxidative potential of PM2.5 and its constituents: The effect of extraction solvent and filter type

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Author: Yang, A. · Jedynska, A. · Hellack, B. · Kooter, I. · Hoek, G. · Brunekreef, B. · Kuhlbusch, T.A.J. · Cassee, F.R. · Janssen, N.A.H.
Type:article
Date:2014
Source:Atmospheric Environment, 83, 35-42
Identifier: 484332
doi: doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.10.049
Keywords: Environment · Ascorbate acid depletion · DTT · ESR · Oxidative potential · Particulate matter · Reactive oxygen species · Urban Development · Built Environment · Earth & Environment · AEC - Applied Environmental Chemistry · EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences

Abstract

The capacity of Particulate Matter (PM) to oxidise target molecules, defined as its oxidative potential (OP), has been proposed as a biologically more relevant metric than PM mass. Different assays exist for measuring OP and their methodologies vary in the choice of extraction solvent and filter type. Little is known about the impact of extraction and filter type on reported OP. Four a-cellular assays; electron spin resonance (ESR), dithiothreitol (DTT), ascorbate acid depletion (AA) and reductive acridinium triggering (CRAT) assay were chosen to evaluate whether these differences affect the OP measurement, the correlation between OP from different assays and the association with PM chemical composition. We analysed 15 urban 48-72h PM2.5 samples collected on quartz and Teflon filters. The choice of extraction solvent had only a significant effect on OPDTT, while all OP measures for quartz filters were heavily attenuated. OP values derived from quartz were, however, highly correlated with those derived from Teflon. OPDTT correlated highly with OPCRAT, and OPESR correlated highly with OPAA. These correlations were affected by the choice of filter type. Correlations between OP and PM chemical composition were not affected by filter type and extraction solvent. These findings indicate that the measurement of relative OP reactivity is not greatly influenced by filter type and extraction solvent for the investigated assays. This robustness is also promising for exploratory use in monitoring and subsequent epidemiological studies. © 2013 The Authors.