Arteriogenesis, the enlargement of collateral vessels, seems a promising new target to improve blood flow to ischemic regions in patients suffering from cardiovascular conditions. With the growing knowledge of the mechanisms involved in arteriogenesis and the factors that influence the process, an increasing number of clinical trials are being performed to stimulate arteriogenesis, providing more insight in therapeutic opportunities for arteriogenesis. The expression of growth factors and the cooperation of surrounding and infiltrating cells seem to be essential in orchestrating the complex processes during arteriogenesis. In this review, we will discuss the regulating mechanisms of arteriogenesis, including the role of growth factors and different cell types and their implementation in a clinical setting. Furthermore, individual differences in the arteriogenic response will be considered, in light of the effect this will have on the success of therapeutic strategies to improve blood flow to ischemic tissue. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.