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Interactions between lifestyle-related factors and the ApoE polymorphism on plasma lipids and apolipoproteins: The ears study

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Author: Boer, J.M.A. · Ehnholm, C. · Menzel, H.J. · Havekes, L.M. · Rosseneu, M. · O'Reilly, D.S.J. · Tiret, L.
Institution: Gaubius Instituut TNO
Source:Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 9, 17, 1675-1681
Identifier: 234084
Keywords: Biology · Adiposity · Apolipoprotein · Apolipoprotein E polymorphism · Lifestyle · Lipids · Apolipoprotein · Apolipoprotein b · Apolipoprotein e · Apolipoprotein e2 · Apolipoprotein e3 · Cholesterol · Cholesterol oleate · Linoleic acid · Lipid · Polyunsaturated fatty acid · Saturated fatty acid · Triacylglycerol · Adult · Alcohol consumption · Anthropometry · Body mass · Cigarette smoking · Controlled study · Female · Genetic polymorphism · Human · Lifestyle · Lipid blood level · Major clinical study · Male · Phenotype · Physical activity · Priority journal · Adolescent · Adult · Apolipoprotein E4 · Apolipoproteins · Apolipoproteins B · Apolipoproteins E · Body Mass Index · Cholesterol Esters · Coronary Arteriosclerosis · Female · Heterozygote · Humans · Life Style · Lipids · Male · Polymorphism, Genetic · Risk Factors


To elucidate how the apolipoprotein (apo)E polymorphism and modifiable factors interact in explaining plasma lipid and apolipoprotein levels, we studied 1448 young adults (18 to 26 years old), participating in the European Atherosclerosis Research Study (EARS). Venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. Modifiable factors, eg, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), tobacco and alcohol consumption, and physical activity, were determined by using standardized protocols. Associations of modifiable factors with apoE levels were homogeneous across apoE phenotypes. In contrast, correlations of BMI with total cholesterol and apoB levels, as well as correlations between WHR and apoB, were significantly (P<.05 to P<.01) stronger in E2 carriers than in subjects with other phenotypes. Total cholesterol and apoB levels were comparable in E2 carriers in the upper tertile of BMI or WHR to those in E3/3 subjects, suggesting that the lowering effect of the E2 allele was no longer present. The inverse association between the plasma cholesteryl linoleate-to-oleate ratio, a marker for the dietary polyunsaturated-to-saturated fatty acid ratio, and triglycerides was also stronger in E2 carriers (-0.33 versus -0.17 in E3/3 and -0.24 in E4 carriers). Associations with other modifiable factors were notably consistent across apoE phenotypes. Gender and modifiable factors explained three times more (31%) of the interindividual variation in apoB levels in E2 carriers than in E3/3 subjects (9%) or E4 carriers (14%), mainly due to a larger variance explained by BMI. Our results suggest that the apoE polymorphism acts in a relatively uniform manner, independently of lifestyle. However, the associations of adiposity to total cholesterol and apoB levels appear to be stronger in apoE2 carriers. Chemicals/CAS: Apolipoprotein E4; Apolipoproteins B; Apolipoproteins E; Apolipoproteins; Cholesterol Esters; cholesteryl linoleate, 604-33-1; cholesteryl oleate, 303-43-5; Lipids