The interactions of CD40 and CD40L have been known for some time to critically regulate B-cell responses with respect to proliferation, isotype switching, antibody production, and memory formation. More recent findings demonstrated that CD40 can be expressed on several other antigen-presenting cell (APC) types such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and fibroblasts. This expression of CD40 regulates T-cell-APC interaction and is centrally involved in a wide array of inflammatory events. Here, currently available data are reviewed demonstrating that CD40-CD40L interactions are operational in two chronic inflammatory clinical conditions, namely, multiple sclerosis and atherosclerosis. The functional correlates of these interactions are discussed in the light of recent other findings, shedding light on the multiple effects of CD40-CD40L interactions.