Background: False-positive screening results in newborn screening for cystic fibrosis may lead to parental stress, family relationship problems and a changed perception of the child's health. Aim of the study: To evaluate whether parental anxiety induced by a false positive screening result disappears after six months and to assess whether a special program to inform parents prior and during the screening procedure prevents or diminishes parental anxiety. Methods: Prospective controlled study assessing the long term effects of false-positive test results of newborn screening for cystic fibrosis (NBSCF) on parental anxiety and stress by means of questionnaires sent to parents of 106 infants with a false positive newborn screening test and 318 randomly selected infants with a true negative screening test. Additionally we interviewed 25 parents of the false-positive group. Results: Parents showed negative feelings after being informed about the positive screening test result. After confirmation that their child was healthy and not suffering from CF, most parents felt reassured. After six months no difference in anxiety levels between both groups of parents was found. Well-informed parents in the false positive group experienced less stress. Conclusions: A positive screening test result induces parental anxiety but false positive test results in NBSCF do not seem to cause long-term anxiety. Well-informed parents show lower stress and anxiety levels.