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Incidence of late vitamin K deficiency bleeding in newborns in the Netherlands in 2005 : Evaluation of the current guideline

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Author: IJland, M.M. · Pereira, R.R. · Cornelissen, E.A.M.
Publisher: Springer
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:European Journal of Pediatrics, 2, 167, 165-169
Identifier: 240646
doi: doi:10.1007/s00431-007-0443-x
Keywords: Health · Infant · Newborn · Prophylaxis · Vitamin K · Vitamin K deficiency · Phytomenadione · Hemorrhagic Disease of Newborn · Humans · Incidence · Infant · Infant, Newborn · Netherlands · Population Surveillance · Practice Guidelines as Topic · Vitamin K


Vitamin K prophylaxis is recommended to prevent the hazard of haemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency in newborns. The present Dutch guideline recommends 1 mg of vitamin K1 orally at birth, followed by a daily dose of 25 μg of vitamin K1 from 1 to 13 weeks of age for breastfed infants. Since the introduction of this prophylaxis, the incidence of vitamin K deficiency bleeding (VKDB) has decreased; however, late VKDB is still reported. From 1 January to 31 December 2005, a nationwide active surveillance was performed by the Netherlands Paediatric Surveillance Unit (NSCK) to study the current incidence and aetiology of late VKDB in infants. Six cases could be validated as late VKDB: all were breastfed, one fatal idiopathic intracranial haemorrhage at the age of 5 weeks and five bleedings secondary to an underlying cholestatic liver disease between the age of 3 and 7 weeks. The total incidence of late VKDB and idiopathic late VKDB was calculated to be 3.2 (95% CI: 1.2-6.9) and 0.5 (95% CI: 0-2.9) per 100,000 live births, respectively. With the current Dutch guideline, idiopathic late VKDB is rare but late VKDB secondary to cholestasis still occurs in breastfed infants. Doubling the daily dose of vitamin K1 to 50 μg, as is comparable to formula-feeding, may possibly prevent VKDB in this group. Further research, however, is needed to prove this hypothesis. © 2007 Springer-Verlag. Chemicals / CAS: phytomenadione, 11104-38-4, 84-80-0; Vitamin K, 12001-79-5