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Water stress implications of energy scenarios for the Middle East: An assessment of Risks and Uncertainties

Author: Zwaan, B.C.C. van der · Halstead, M. · Kober, M.
Source:Understanding Risks and Uncertainties in Energy and Climate Policy, 143-159
Identifier: 844180
Keywords: Energy · Energy-water-food nexus · Climate change · Energy scenarios · Risks · Uncertainties · Middle East · Energy Efficiency · Energy / Geological Survey Netherlands


Energy, water, and food systems have so far mostly been studied independently. In this chapter, we argue that it is important to take an “energy-water-food nexus approach” to analyzing these three resource systems. After briefly introducing the emerging literature on the energy-water-food nexus, we inspect the interrelationship between energy and water use in the Middle East. We present results for projected power production, water withdrawal, and water consumption levels until 2050 in the Middle East under both baseline and stringent climate policy scenarios. We also analyze how the use of different cooling techniques for the main power production options in the Middle East can yield water withdrawal and consumption savings in the electricity sector in the region. We end by informing authorities responsible for the implementation of energy-water policies on the risks and uncertainties associated with the water usage of future energy systems.