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Extra-Virgin Olive Oil with Natural Phenolic Content Exerts an Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Adipose Tissue and Attenuates the Severity of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Ldlr−/−.Leiden Mice

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Author: Luque-Sierra, A. · Alvarez-Amor, L. · Kleemann, R. · Martín, F. · Varela, L.M.
Type:article
Date:2018
Source:Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 13, 62
Identifier: 820504
doi: doi:10.1002/mnfr.201800295
Article number: 1800295
Keywords: Nutrition · Atherosclerosis · Extra-virgin olive oil · High-fat diet · Inflammation · Obesity · Healthy for Life · Healthy Living

Abstract

Scope: The present study investigates the effect of olive oils with different phenolic content in high-fat diets (HFDs) on hypertrophy and inflammation in adipose tissue and associated atherosclerosis, in the context of obesity. Methods and results: Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice were fed three different HFDs for 32 weeks and were compared with mice fed the standard low-fat diet (LFD). The different fats provided in the HFDs were lard (HFD-L), extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO; 79 mg kg–1 of phenolic compounds, HFD-EVOO), or EVOO rich in phenolic compounds (OL, 444 mg kg–1 of phenolic compounds, HFD-OL). All HFD-fed mice became obese, but only HFD-L–induced adipocyte hypertrophy. HFD-EVOO mice exhibited the greatest levels of Adiponectin in adipose tissue and presented atherosclerotic lesions similar to the LFD group, with a very low count of monocyte/macrophage compared with HFD-L and HFD-OL mice. Enrichment of the phenolic content of olive oil reduced the secretion of nitrites/nitrates in the aorta, but atherosclerosis was not attenuated in HFD-OL mice compared to other HFD mice. Conclusion: Consumption of olive oil with a natural content of phenolic compounds attenuates adipose tissue hypertrophy and inflammation and exerts antiatherosclerotic effects in mice. A higher phenolic content of olive oil did not provide further benefits in the prevention of atherosclerosis. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim