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Association between trans fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk factors in Europe: The TRANSFAIR study

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Author: Vijver, L.P.L. van de · Kardinaal, A.F.M. · Couet, C. · Aro, A. · Kafatos, A. · Steingrimsdottir, L. · Amorim Cruz, J.A. · Moreiras, O. · Becker, W. · Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van · Vidal-Jessel, S. · Salminen, I. · Moschandreas, J. · Sigfússon, N. · Martins, I. · Carbajal, A. · Ytterfors, A. · Poppel, G. van
Type:article
Date:2000
Source:European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2, 54, 126-135
Identifier: 235517
doi: doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600906
Keywords: fatty acid · high density lipoprotein · low density lipoprotein · adult · aged · article · cardiovascular disease · cholesterol blood level · controlled study · disease association · Europe · fat intake · female · food intake · human · lipid blood level · lipid composition · major clinical study · male · risk factor · trans isomer · Adipose Tissue · Aged · Cardiovascular Diseases · Cholesterol · Cross-Sectional Studies · Diet Records · Dietary Fats · Energy Intake · Europe · Fatty Acids · Female · Humans · Isomerism · Linear Models · Lipids · Lipoproteins, HDL · Lipoproteins, LDL · Male · Middle Aged · Risk Factors

Abstract

Background: High intakes of trans fatty acids (TFA) have been found to exert an undersirable effect on serum lipid profiles, and thus may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Objective: Investigation of the association between TFA intake and serum lipids. Design: Cross-sectional study in eight European countries (Finland, France, Greece, Iceland, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden) among 327 men and 299 women (50-65 y). Using a dietary history method, food consumption was assessed and TFA intake was calculated with recent figures on TFA levels of foods, collected in the TRANSFAIR study. Results: Mean (±s.d.) TFA intake was 2.40 ± 1.53 g/day for men and 1.98±1.49 g/day for women (0.87±0.48% and 0.95±0.55% of energy, respectively), with the highest consumption in Iceland and the lowest in the Mediterranean countries. No associations were found between total TFA intake and LDL, HDL or LDL/HDL ratio after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Additional adjustment for other fatty acid clusters resulted in a significant inverse trend between total TFA intake and total cholesterol (P(trend)<0.03). The most abundantly occuring TFA isomer, C18:1 t, contributed substantially to this inverse association. The TFA isomers C14:1 t9, C16:1 t9 and C22:1 t were not associated or were positively associated with LDL or total cholesterol. Conclusions: From this study we conclude that at the current European intake levels of trans fatty acids they are not associated with an unfavourable serum lipid profile.