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Assessment of CO2 storage performance of the Enhanced Coalbed Methane pilot site in Kaniow

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Author: Bergen, F. van · Winthaegen, P. · Pagnier, H. · Krzystolik, P. · Jura, B. · Skiba, J. · Wageningen, N. van
Type:article
Date:2009
Institution: TNO Bouw en Ondergrond
Source:Energy Procedia, 1, 1, 3407-3414
Identifier: 241387
doi: doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2009.02.130
Keywords: Geosciences · Carbon dioxide · Injection · Production · Swelling · Coal bed methane · Coal seams · Free gas · Gas compositions · Gas productions · Gas release · Injection · Injection wells · Lessons learned · Long term stability · Low permeability coal seam · Operational periods · Pore space · Pressure reduction · Production phase · Production wells · Secondary production · Storage performance · Vertical wells · Water production · Carbon dioxide · Coal · Coal deposits · Coal industry · Coal storage · Gases · Injection (oil wells) · Leakage (fluid) · Metal recovery · Methane · Oil wells · Pumps · Water injection · Well stimulation · Geological Survey Netherlands · General Energy / Geological Survey Netherlands

Abstract

A pilot site for CO2 storage in coal seams was set-up in Poland, as has been reported on previous GHGT conferences. This site consisted of one injection and one production well. About 760 ton of CO2 has been injected into the reservoir from August 2004 to June 2005. Breakthrough of the injected CO2 was established, which resulted in the production of about 10% of the injected CO2 by the production well in this period. A follow-up EC project, MOVECBM, aimed at determining the storage performance of the reservoir, i.e. whether the injected CO2 was adsorbed onto the coal or whether it was still present as free gas in the pore space. The injection well was used for this purpose, because the production well had to be abandoned for permitting reasons. Several operational periods can be defined between the last injection in June 2005 and the abandonment of the well in October 2007. In the first period the well was shut-in to observe the pressure fall-off, followed by a decrease of pressure at the wellhead by releasing gas in a controlled way in the first months of 2006. The amount and composition of the gas were measured. As a result of the pressure reduction, the well flooded with water. A production pump was placed on the former injection well, enabling active production from the coal from March to September 2007. Results of these operations showed that whereas the gas production rates were as expected based on the experience with the production well, the water production was remarkably low. Further, the gas composition showed a predominance of CO2 over CH4 during the gas release that changed gradually into a predominance of CH4 over CO2 during the production phase. Although stabilization was not reached within the production period, the composition approached a 60% methane, 40% CO2 ratio. This indicates that the exchange of these gases is more complex than often envisaged. After removal of the pump the well was filled with water, which ceased the gas release. This indicates that the pressure in the reservoir was back to its original, hydrostatic, state. As the total volume of CO2 produced was only a fraction of the amount that was injected, it can be concluded that the CO2 was taken up by the coal and is currently adsorbed. This gives confidence in the long-term stability of the injected CO2. In conclusion, the field demonstration in Poland has been a successful experiment. Lessons learned in this demonstration indicate that the volumes that can be injected in low permeability coal seams (<2 mD) by a vertical well is likely to be less than 100 ton per day. The expected CBM production at these rates will be 1.5 to 2 times higher than by regular CBM operations because of the interaction with the CO2. It is recommended to perform ECBM operations as a secondary production phase after an initial CBM production phase. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.