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Long-term endothelial dysfunction is more pronounced after stenting than after balloon angioplasty in porcine coronary arteries

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Author: Beusekom, H.M.M. van · Whelan, D.M. · Hofma, S.H. · Krabbendam, S.C. · Hinsbergh, V.W.M. van · Verdouw, P.D. · Giessen, W.J. van der
Type:article
Date:1998
Institution: Gaubius Instituut TNO
Source:Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 4, 32, 1109-1117
Identifier: 234621
doi: DOI:10.1016/S0735-1097(98)00348-9
Keywords: Health · Angioplasty, Transluminal, Percutaneous Coronary · Animals · Capillary Permeability · Cell Division · Coronary Vessels · Endothelium, Vascular · Stents · Swine · Tunica Intima

Abstract

Objectives. To compare percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and stent implantation with respect to the long-term changes they induce in the newly formed endothelium in porcine coronary arteries by studying both morphological and functional parameters of the endothelium at 2 weeks and 3 months after intervention. Background. Problems affecting PTCA or stent implantation have been overcome to a large extent by means of better techniques and the availability of new drugs. Late problems, however, still exist in that restenosis affects a large number of patients. With an increasing number of patients being treated with stents, the problem of in- stent restenosis is of even greater concern, as this seems difficult to treat. A functional endothelial lining is thought to be important in controlling the growth of the underlying vascular tissue. We hypothesized that the enhanced neointimal hyperplasia observed after stenting is associated with a more pronounced and prolonged endothelial dysfunction. Methods. Arteries were analyzed using a dye-exclusion test and planimetry of permeable areas. Thereafter, the arteries were processed for light and scanning electron microscopy for assessment of morphology and proliferative response. Results. Leakage of the endothelium for molecules such as Evans blue-albumin as well as prolonged endothelial proliferation is observed as late as 3 months after the intervention, and is more pronounced after stenting. Permeability is associated with distinct morphologic characteristics: endothelial retraction, the expression of surface folds, and the adhesion of leukocytes. Conclusions. Stenting especially decreases long- term vascular integrity with respect to permeability and endothelial proliferation, and is associated with distinct morphologic characteristics.