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Fabrication of low straylight holographic gratings for space applications

Author: Steiner, R. · Pesch, A. · Erdmann, L.H. · Burkhardt, M. · Gatto, A. · Wipf, R. · Diehl, T. · Vink, H.J.P. · Bosch, B.G. van den
Type:article
Date:2013
Source:Imaging Spectrometry XVIII, 26-27 August 2013, San Diego, CA, USA, 8870
series:
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Identifier: 484297
ISBN: 9780819497208
Article number: 88700H
Keywords: Electronics · Custom design grating · Efficiency · Grating · Holography · Space application · Stray light · High Tech Systems & Materials · Industrial Innovation · Nano Technology · OPT - Optics · TS - Technical Sciences

Abstract

The main challenges of fabricating diffraction gratings for use in earth monitoring spectrometers are given by the requirements for low stray light, high diffraction efficiency and a low polarization sensitivity. Furthermore the use in space also requires a high environmental stability of these gratings. We found that holography in combination with ion beam plasma etching provides a way to obtain monolithic, robust fused silica gratings which are able to meet the above mentioned requirements for space applications. Holography accompanied by plasma etching allows the fabrication of a wide range of different grating profiles to optimize the efficiency including the polarization behavior according to a wealth of applications. Typical profile shapes feasible are blazed gratings, sinusoidal profiles and binary profiles and this allows to tailor the efficiency and polarization requirements exactly to the spectral range of the special application. Holographic gratings can be fabricated on plane and also on curved substrates as core components of imaging spectrometers. In this paper we present our grating fabrication flow for the example of plane blazed gratings and we relate the efficiency and stray light measurement results to certain steps of the process. The holographic setup was optimized to minimize stray light and ghosting recorded by the photoresist during the exposure. Low wave front deviations require the use of highly accurate grating substrates and high precision optics in the holographic exposure.