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17α-Ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol, a biological marker for the abuse of norethandrolone and ethylestrenol in slaughter cattle

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Author: Puymbroeck, M. van · Kuilman, M.E.M. · Maas, R.F.M. · Witkamp, R.F. · Leyssens, L. · Miert, A.S.J.P.A.M. van · Hendriks, L. · Zande, D.J.M. van der · Adriaensens, P. · Jacobs, M.-P. · Raus, J.
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:Journal of Chromatography B: Biomedical Sciences and Applications, 2, 728, 217-232
Identifier: 235039
doi: doi:10.1016/S0378-4347(99)00091-2
Keywords: Nutrition · 17α-Ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol · Ethylestrenol · Norethandrolone · Steroids · Biological marker · Ethylestrenol · Norethandrolone · 17Alpha ethyl 5 xi estrane 3 xi,17 beta diol · Drug derivative · Drug residue · Estradiol · Animal experiment · Animal tissue · Article · Biotransformation · Cattle · Drug abuse · Drug metabolism · Drug monitoring · Feces · Female · Intramuscular drug administration · Liver · Liver cell culture · Male · Nonhuman · Priority journal · Reduction · Urine · Animal · Animal husbandry · Chemistry · High performance liquid chromatography · Liver microsome · Mass fragmentography · Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy · Sensitivity and specificity · Standard · Thin layer chromatography · Ultraviolet spectrophotometry · Biological Markers · Cattle · Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid · Chromatography, Thin Layer · Drug Residues · Estradiol · Ethylestrenol · Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry · Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy · Male · Microsomes, Liver · Norethandrolone · Reference Standards · Sensitivity and Specificity · Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet


The metabolism of the illegal growth promoter ethylestrenol (EES) was evaluated in bovine liver cells and subcellular fractions of bovine liver preparations. Incubations with bovine microsomal preparations revealed that EES is extensively biotransformed into norethandrolone (NE), another illegal growth promoter. Furthermore, incubations of monolayer cultures of hepatocytes with NE indicated that NE itself is rapidly reduced to 17α-ethyl-5β-estrane-3α,17β-diol (EED). In vivo tests confirmed that, after administration of either EES or NE, EED is excreted as a major metabolite. Therefore, it was concluded that, both in urine and faeces samples, EED can be used as a biological marker for the illegal use of EES and/or NE. Moreover, by monitoring EED in urine or faeces samples, the detection period after NE administration is significantly prolonged. These findings were further confirmed by three cases of norethandrolone abuse in a routine screening program for forbidden growth promoters. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.