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Presence and metabolism of the anabolic steroid boldenone in various animal species: A review

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Author: Brabander, H.F. de · Poelmans, S. · Schilt, R. · Stephany, R.W. · Bizec, B. le · Draisci, R. · Sterk, S.S. · Ginkel, L.A. van · Courtheyn, D. · Hoof, N. van · Macrì, A. · Wasch, K. de
Type:article
Date:2004
Institution: TNO Voeding
Source:Food Additives and Contaminants, 6, 21, 515-525
Identifier: 237774
doi: doi:10.1080/02652030410001687717
Keywords: Biology · Biotechnology · Anabolic steroids · Boldenone · Bovine · Calves · Endogenous · Illegal treatment · Metabolism · Phytosterol · 17alpha boldenone · 17beta boldenone · anabolic agent · boldenone · clostebol · illicit drug · nandrolone · stanozolol · testosterone · unclassified drug · analytic method · carcinogenicity · chemical structure · conjugation · controlled study · Crustacea · drug use · European Union · feces analysis · female · gas chromatography · human · laboratory test · liquid chromatography · male · mass spectrometry · medical research · microorganism · Mycobacterium · nonhuman · Phycomycetes · priority journal · review · screening test · species difference · steroid metabolism · urinary excretion · Anabolic Agents · Animals · Female · Humans · Male · Substance Abuse Detection · Testosterone · Animalia · Bovinae

Abstract

The review summarizes current knowledge on the possible illegal use of the anabolic steroid boldenone. The presence of boldenone and metabolites in different animal species and the possibility of the occurrence of endogenous boldenone and metabolites is assessed, as are the methods of analysis used for detection. Different laboratories in the European Union have examined the occurrence of boldenone and its metabolites. The results were discussed at different meetings of a European Commission DG-SANCO Working Party and summarized in an expert report. The situation of the different laboratories at this time is also covered herein. The overall conclusion of the Working Party was that there was a necessity for further research to distinguish between naturally occurring and illegally used boldenone forms. The confirmation of the presence of boldenone metabolites (free and conjugated forms) in certain matrices of animals is proposed as a marker for the illegal treatment with boldenone. © 2004 Taylor & Francis Ltd.