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Modelling command and control teams

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Author: Broek, J. van den · Essens, P.J.M.D. · Post, W.M.
Institution: TNO Technische Menskunde
Source:Proceedings of the Nato Modelling & Simulation Group (NMSG) Conference,12-14 November 2001, Breda, The Netherlands. RTO-MP-073 session III paper 7
Identifier: 10895
Keywords: Command and control


This paper describes a computational approach to modelling and simulating C2-team behaviour. Within this approach team models may be used to develop, test, and compare different C2-architectures, that is different structures and processes, without the need for real teams. The advantage of this method is to be able to identify the critical factors determining effective team functioning and to eliminate design inefficiencies at an early stage. Furthermore, different “what if” questions can be put to the test. The aim of the current approach is to develop and test credible concepts of how to organize C2-teams, not to produce complete one-on-one blueprints for future C2-teams. The approach described below emphasizes the contingency relations between C2-structure and the characteristics of the mission and mission environment. Different environments require different C2-team behaviours: Therefore, flexibility, workload balancing, and team adaptation are important elements in our model. C2-teams are complex because they consist of a large number of members and difficult interaction patterns. This means that we view team performance not only as an aggregation of the individual performances but also as the quality of interaction among the team members. In this approach the interaction between team members is modelled as activation spreading through a task network. For implementing the task network, we used the IPME modelling and simulation package. The model also provides a workload-visualization tool that gives designers an overview of the functions that are being performed within the team. The overview of the workload distribution offers the designers insight in the team processes and possible bottlenecks. This insight can then be used to optimise the team architecture in an analyse-and-redesign loop. The overview is created by mapping the tasks and their workloads to a function taxonomy.