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Spatial variability of trace elements and sources for improved exposure assessment in Barcelona

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Author: Minguillón, M.C. · Cirach, M. · Hoek, G. · Brunekreef, B. · Tsai, M. · Hoogh, K. de · Jedynska, A. · Kooter, I.M. · Nieuwenhuijsen, M. · Querol, X.
Type:article
Date:2014
Source:Atmospheric Environment, 89, 268-281
Identifier: 492941
doi: doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.02.047
Keywords: Environment · Metals · PM · PMF · Source apportionment · Urban · Anthropogenic aerosols · Barcelona metropolitan areas · Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence · PMF · Positive matrix factorisation · Source apportionment · Spatial and temporal variation · Urban · Combustion · Energy dispersive spectroscopy · Industrial emissions · Lead · Metals · Mineral industry · Minerals · Nickel · Particles (particulate matter) · Promethium · Trace elements · Zinc · Zirconium · barium ion · bromine · chlorine · chromium · cuprous ion · fuel oil · hopanoid · hydrochloric acid · iron · lead · manganese · molybdenum · nickel · potassium · prednisolone · sodium · sulfate · sulfur · tin · trace element · vanadium · zinc · zirconium · aerosol composition · anthropogenic source · atmospheric pollution · combustion · concentration (composition) · marine atmosphere · metropolitan area · organic carbon · pollution exposure · public health · sea salt · spatial variation · sulfate · trace element · urban atmosphere · aerosol · article · combustion · controlled study · environmental exposure · oxidation · particulate matter · priority journal · seasonal variation · shipping · Spain · traffic · urban area · X ray fluorescence · Barcelona [Catalonia] · Catalonia · Spain · Urban Development · Built Environment · Earth / Environmental · AEC - Applied Environmental Chemistry · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences

Abstract

Trace and major elements concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 were measured at 20 sites spread in the Barcelona metropolitan area (1 rural background, 6 urban background, 13 road traffic sites) and at 1 reference site. Three 2-week samples per site and size fraction were collected during 2009 using low volume samplers, adding a total of 120 samples. Collected samples were analysed for elemental composition using Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF). EC, OC, and hopanes and steranes concentrations in PM2.5 were determined. Positive Matrix Factorisation (PMF) model was used for a source apportionment analysis. The work was performed as part of the ESCAPE project.Elements were found in concentrations within the usual range in Spanish urban areas. Mineral elements were measured in higher concentrations during the warm season, due to enhanced resuspension; concentrations of fueloil combustion elements were also higher in summer. Elements in higher concentration at the traffic sites were: Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sn, Zn and Zr. Spatial variations related to non-traffic sources were observed for concentrations of Br, Cl, K, and Na (sea salt origin) and Ni, V and S (shipping emissions), which were higher at the coastal sites, as well as for Zn and Pb, higher at sites closer to industrial facilities.Five common sources for PM10 and PM2.5 were identified by PMF: road traffic (with tracers Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mo and Zn); fueloil combustion (Ni and V); secondary sulphate; industry (Pb and Zn); and mineral source (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Sr and Ti). A marine aerosol source, a mixture of sea salt with aged anthropogenic aerosols, was found only in PM10. EC, hopanes and steranes concentrations correlate strongly with the PM10 road traffic source contributions, being hence all attributed to the same source. OC may arise from other sources in addition to road traffic and have a high contribution of secondary OC.Significant spatial and temporal variation in the PM2.5 and PM10 elemental composition was found. Spatial patterns differed per element, related to the main source. The identified source contributions can be used in health studies of source-specific particles. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Chemicals/CAS: barium ion, 22541-12-4; bromine, 7726-95-6; chlorine, 13981-72-1, 7782-50-5; chromium, 14092-98-9, 16065-83-1, 7440-47-3; hydrochloric acid, 7647-01-0; iron, 14093-02-8, 53858-86-9, 7439-89-6; lead, 13966-28-4, 7439-92-1; manganese, 16397-91-4, 7439-96-5; molybdenum, 7439-98-7; nickel, 7440-02-0; potassium, 7440-09-7; prednisolone, 50-24-8; sodium, 7440-23-5; sodium nitrate, 7631-99-4; sulfate, 14808-79-8; sulfur, 13981-57-2, 7704-34-9; tin, 14314-35-3, 7440-31-5; vanadium, 7440-62-2; zinc, 14378-32-6, 7440-66-6; zirconium, 14940-68-2, 7440-67-7