Objective: The aim was to determine whether men and women with the same job are equally exposed to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal complaints. Methods: Men (n = 491) and women (n = 342) in 8 jobs with both female and male workers completed a questionnaire on exposure to work-related risk factors. Gender, job title, and potential confounders were included in the final statistical models. Separate analyses were performed for desk workers and assembly workers. Results: For most risk factors gender differences in exposure were found. Among desk workers exposures were most often higher for women, which was the opposite for assembly workers. Conclusions: Although exposure assessment relied on self-report, it seems unlikely that gender differences in reporting behavior completely explained gender differences in exposure. Thus, gender differences in exposure are present within the same job. Copyright © by American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine.