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Nasal passages of Göttingen minipigs from the neonatal period to young adult

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Author: Kuper, C.F. · Ernst, H. · Oostrum, L.C.M. van · Rittinghausen, S. · Penninks, A.H. · Ganderup, N.-C. · Wolterbeek, A.P.M.
Source:Toxicologic Pathology, 4, 40, 656-666
Identifier: 461070
doi: doi:10.1177/0192623311436175
Keywords: inhalation · juvenile development · minipig · NALT · nasal levels · olfactory bulb · vomeronasal organ · Healthy for Life · Healthy Living · Life Triskelion BV · QS - Quality & Safety TAP - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology · EELS - Earth, Environmental and Life Sciences TNO Bedrijven


Histopathological examination of the nasal passages requires a standardized approach for recording lesion distribution patterns. Nasal diagrams provide guidance to map the lesions. Information on lesions exists for rodents, dogs, and monkeys, which all have been used in inhalation studies. Recently, minipigs have garnered interest as an inhalation model because minipigs resemble humans in many features of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry and may be a good alternative to monkeys and dogs. The present work explored the microanatomy and histology of the nasal passages of Göttingen minipigs from postnatal day 1 until 6 months of age. Six nasal levels were selected, which allow examination of the squamous, transitional (nonciliated) and ciliated respiratory, and olfactory epithelia; the nasopharynx; and relevant structures such as the vomeronasal organ, olfactory bulb, and nasal/nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue. © 2012 by The Author(s).