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A comparison of decision-level sensor-fusion methods for anti-personnel landmine detection.

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Author: Schutte, K. · Schavemaker, J.G.M. · Cremer, F. · Breejen, E. den
Institution: TNO Fysisch en Elektronisch Laboratorium
Source:Information Fusion, September, 3, 2, 187-208
Identifier: 215294
Keywords: Radar · Anti-personnel landmine detection · Dempster-Shafer theory · Fuzzy probabilities · Naive Bayes · Rule-based method · Sensor-fusion · Voting


We present the sensor-fusion results obtained from measurements within the European research project ground explosive ordinance detection (GEODE) system that strives for the realisation of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor, anti-personnel landmine-detection system for humanitarian de-mining. The system has three sensor types: a metal detector (MD), an infrared camera (IR), and a ground penetrating radar (GPR). The output of the sensors is processed to produce confidence levels on a grid covering the test-bed. A confidence level expresses a confidence or belief in a landmine detection on a certain position. The grid with confidence levels is the input for the decision-level sensor-fusion and provides a co-registration of the sensors. The applied fusion methods are naive Bayes' approaches, Dempster-Shafer theory, fuzzy probabilities, a rule-based method, and voting techniques. To compare fusion methods and to analyse the capacity of a method to separate landmines from the background on the basis of the output of different sensors, we provide an analysis of the different methods by viewing them as discriminant functions in the sensor confidence space. The results of experiments on real sensor data are evaluated with the leave-one-out method. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.