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Mediterranean diet adherence and genetic background roles within a web-based nutritional intervention: The food4me study

Author: San-Cristobal, R. · Navas-Carretero, S. · Livingstone, K.M. · Celis-Morales, C. · Macready, A.L. · Fallaize, R. · O’Donovan, C.B. · Lambrinou, C.P. · Moschonis, G. · Marsaux, C.F.M. · Manios, Y. · Jarosz, M. · Daniel, H. · Gibney, E.R. · Brennan, L. · Drevon, C.A. · Gundersen, T.E. · Gibney, M. · Saris, W.H.M. · Lovegrove, J.A. · Grimaldi, K. · Parnell, L.D. · Bouwman, J. · Ommen, B. · Mathers, J.C. · Alfredo Martinez, J.
Source:Nutrients, 10, 9
Identifier: 781916
doi: doi:10.3390/nu9101107
Article number: 1107
Keywords: Biology · Food4Me study · Genetic risk · Mediterranean diet · Obesity · Carotenoid · Cholesterol · Fatty acid · Glucose · Omega 3 fatty acid · Adult · Blood analysis · Body mass · Dietary compliance · DNA isolation · Female · Follow up · Food frequency questionnaire · Gene linkage disequilibrium · Genetic load · Genetic risk · Genotype · Human · Male · Phenotype · Quantitative trait locus · Randomized controlled trial (topic) · Single nucleotide polymorphism · Treatment outcome · Waist circumference · Biomedical Innovation · Healthy Living · Life · MSB - Microbiology and Systems Biology · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences


Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) adherence has been proven to produce numerous health benefits. In addition, nutrigenetic studies have explained some individual variations in the response to specific dietary patterns. The present research aimed to explore associations and potential interactions between MedDiet adherence and genetic background throughout the Food4Me web-based nutritional intervention. Dietary, anthropometrical and biochemical data from volunteers of the Food4Me study were collected at baseline and after 6 months. Several genetic variants related to metabolic risk features were also analysed. A Genetic Risk Score (GRS) was derived from risk alleles and a Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), based on validated food intake data, was estimated. At baseline, there were no interactions between GRS and MDS categories for metabolic traits. Linear mixed model repeated measures analyses showed a significantly greater decrease in total cholesterol in participants with a low GRS after a 6-month period, compared to those with a high GRS. Meanwhile, a high baseline MDS was associated with greater decreases in Body Mass Index (BMI), waist circumference and glucose. There also was a significant interaction between GRS and the MedDiet after the follow-up period. Among subjects with a high GRS, those with a high MDS evidenced a highly significant reduction in total carotenoids, while among those with a low GRS, there was no difference associated with MDS levels. These results suggest that a higher MedDiet adherence induces beneficial effects on metabolic outcomes, which can be affected by the genetic background in some specific markers. © 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Chemicals/CAS: cholesterol, 57-88-5; glucose, 50-99-7, 84778-64-3