The military firepower in out-of-area operations is based on the available means notwithstanding the fact that these were procured with other operational demands and doctrines in mind. Operations increased the awareness of the user’s unfamiliarity with the ammunition performance against non-traditional targets in confined, populated areas within the rules of engagement. On behalf of the RNLA, TNO started a large scale experimental research program, 2008-2011, in close collaboration with (inter)national partners to become conversant with the performance of conventional ammunitions: 12.7 mm up to 155mm, AT/ASM and TP ammunitions. The ‘IST’ situation is qualitative interpreted from various perspectives, focussed on performance including operational tempo, risk, safety and collateral damage, The need for international definitions, criteria and metrics is evident. The impact on our supporting VL TARVAC assessment model is addressed. The overall objective is to improve the safe, effective and efficient use and procurement of ammunition.