First chapter provides the background on today’s worldwide developments in the field of selective atomic layer processing involving material deposition and etching. These techniques hold great potential in mitigating the process complexity and development costs currently faced by the semiconductor industry. In order to fully exploit the potential of these techniques in modern (three-dimensional) device fabrication, knowledge regarding challenges in state-of-the-art nanomanufacturing is a prerequisite. In this chapter an outline of selective atomic layer processing techniques is given to provide a bird’s eye perspective of nanomanufacturing and to guide the reader in comprehending the prospects of atomic layer processing. It is important to note that the results of this dissertation are not solely aimed at specific applications in semiconductor manufacturing but more at investigating atomic layer processing techniques. The main objective was to develop area-selective deposition as well as selective etch processes using several materials as case studies. At the same time, this has shed light on the chemical and physical phenomena imparting selectivity in atomic layer processing. The insights thus obtained are expected to contribute towards the implementation of selective atomic layer processes not only in the field of semiconductor nanoelectronics but also in other application fields such as photovoltaics, displays, catalysis, etc.