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Effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on the bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol

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Author: Minekus, M. · Jelier, M. · Xiao, J.-Z. · Kondo, S. · Iwatsuki, K. · Kokubo, S. · Bos, M. · Dunnewind, B. · Havenaar, R.
Type:article
Date:2005
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry, 5, 69, 932-938
Identifier: 238462
doi: doi:10.1271/bbb.69.932
Keywords: Health · Biomedical Research · Bioaccessibility · Cholesterol · Depletion flocculation · Dietary fiber · Fat · Absorption · Biochemistry · Cholesterol · Emulsification · Flocculation · Hydrolysis · Lipids · Oils and fats · Bioaccessibility · Flocculation mechanism · Gastrointestinal tracts · Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) · Organic compounds · galactan · guar gum · mannan · pepsin A · plant gum · sunflower oil · vegetable oil · yoghurt · article · bile · biological model · chemistry · cholesterol intake · drug effect · fat intake · hydrolysis · intestine absorption · micelle · nutritional value · pH · time · Bile · Cholesterol, Dietary · Dietary Fats · Galactans · Hydrogen-Ion Concentration · Hydrolysis · Intestinal Absorption · Mannans · Micelles · Models, Biological · Nutritive Value · Pepsin A · Plant Gums · Plant Oils · Time Factors · Yogurt · Cyamopsis tetragonoloba · Helianthus

Abstract

The Addition of a compound that lowers the intestinal uptake of fat and cholesterol might be an interesting strategy to reduce the risk of vascular disease. Partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) has been shown to have this effect in healthy volunteers after intake of a yogurt drink with 3 to 6% PHGG. In the present study a yogurt drink with 3% sunflower oil and 4% egg yolk was tested with 3% and 6% PHGG, and compared to a control without PHGG. Experiments were performed in a multi-compartmental model of the gastrointestinal tract, equipped to study the digestion and availability for absorption (bioaccessibility) of lipids. The results show that PHGG decreases the bioaccessibility of both fat and cholesterol in a dose-dependent manner. The bioaccessibility of fat was 79.4 ± 1.7%, 70.8 ± 2.5% and 60.1 ± 1.1% for the control experiments and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. The bioaccessibility of cholesterol was 82.2 ± 2.0%, 75.4 ± 1.2% and 64.0 ± 4.3% for the control and the experiments with 3% and 6% PHGG respectively. Additional experiments indicated that PHGG reduces bioaccessibility through the depletion flocculation mechanism. Depletion flocculation antagonizes the emulsification by bile salts and thus decreases lipolytic activity, resulting in a lower bioaccessibility of fat and cholesterol. Depletion flocculation with polymers might be an interesting mechanism, not described before, to reduce fat and cholesterol absorption.