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Effects of Ginkgo biloba on corticosterone stress responses after inescapable shock exposure in the rat

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Author: Markus, C.R. · Lammers, J.H.C.M.
Type:article
Date:2003
Source:Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 3-4, 76, 487-492
Identifier: 237459
doi: doi:10.1016/j.pbb.2003.09.002
Keywords: Toxicology Biology · Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology · Active avoidance · Corticosterone · Ginkgo biloba · Learned helplessness · Stress adaptation · corticosterone · flavonoid · Ginkgo biloba extract · terpenoid · adaptation · animal experiment · article · avoidance behavior · controlled study · drug effect · Ginkgo biloba · learning · male · nonhuman · priority journal · rat · shock · stress · training · Animals · Avoidance Learning · Corticosterone · Electroshock · Ginkgo biloba · Helplessness, Learned · Male · Rats · Rats, Wistar · Stress, Psychological · Animalia · Ginkgo biloba

Abstract

Extracts from the leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree (GBE) are found to be clinically effective in neuroprotection, cerebral and cardiovascular function and cognitive processing. Recent animal findings suggest that GBE also may improve stress adaptation and prevent learned helplessness, as evidenced by its reduction of behavioral acquisition deficits of active avoidance after inescapable shock exposure. In the present report, the effects of two doses of GBE were studied on corticosterone stress responses and acquisition of active avoidance after inescapable shock exposure. Forty-eight rats were divided into three groups: either receiving a daily dose of 50 mg/kg or 150 mg/kg of GBE (containing 24% flavonoid and 6% terpenoid) or vehicle for 2 weeks. After 2 weeks of administration, animals were trained for active-avoidance acquisition following inescapable shock exposure (stress induction) or nonshock exposure (nonstress). Administration of 150 mg/kg but not of 50 mg/kg of GBE significantly prevented a corticosterone stress response after inescapable shock exposure (P<.0001) without any beneficial behavioral effect on active avoidance. Repeated administration of GBE particularly improves biological adaptation to noxious stimuli without beneficial behavioral consequences. Present findings do not support previous claims about the benefits of G. biloba on improving behavioral stress adaptation and acquisition of active avoidance and on reducing behavioral deficits indicative of "learned helplessness." © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.