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Food additives and food components in total diets in The Netherlands

Author: Dokkum, W. van · Vos, R.H. de · Cloughley, F.A. · Hulshof, K.F.A.M. · Dukel, F. · Wijsman, J.A.
Institution: Centraal Instituut voor Voedingsonderzoek TNO
Source:British Journal of Nutrition, 2, 48, 223-231
Identifier: 229314
Keywords: Nutrition · Geographic distribution · Netherlands · Nutrient · Short survey · Adolescent · Diet · Dietary Carbohydrates · Dietary Fats · Dietary Proteins · Female · Food Additives · Food Analysis · Human · Nutritive Value


During a period of 2 years, every 2 months 126 different food items forming a 'market basket' were purchased, prepared and divided into twelve food commodity groups. The 'market basket' was based on a study of the dietary pattern of 16- to 18-year-old male adolescents. In the (homogenized) food group various additives and components of nutritional importance were determined. From the concentrations of the additives and components in the food groups and the daily consumption of each food groups, a mean daily intake of all components analysed was calculated. The mean daily amounts of benzoic acid (34 mg), sorbic acid (6 mg), glutamic acid (660 mg) and sulphite (3 mg) were all far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value. Butylated hydroxytoluene and gallates were not detectable, while butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) was found in only a few instances; the maximum amount of BHA was also very low (4 mg). The mean daily intakes of fluorine (0.8 mg), iodine (0.21 mg), phosphorus (1860 mg) and ??-tocopherol (9.4 mg) seem safe and adequate. Cholesterol intakes of 25% above the maximum of 300 mg/d, as advised by the Dutch Bureau for Nutrition Education, were found. The mean fat intake appeared to be 40% of total daily energy, protein content 13% of total energy and total energy and total (available) carbohydrate 46% of total energy. The daily dietary fibre content (18 mg) and the daily amount of linoleic+linolenic acid (6% of total energy) were considered too low. The daily level of sodium (4.2 g) was not considered too high. It is recommended that the study should be repeated regularly, e.g. every few years, in order to monitor trends in the concentrations of significant food components in total diets. Chemicals/CAS: Dietary Carbohydrates; Dietary Fats; Dietary Proteins; Food Additives