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Profiling human gut bacterial metabolism and its kinetics using [U- 13C]glucose and NMR

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Author: Graaf, A.A. de · Maathuis, A. · Waard, P. de · Deutz, N.E.P. · Dijkema, C. · Vos, W.M. de · Venema, K.
Institution: TNO Kwaliteit van Leven
Source:NMR in Biomedicine, 1, 23, 2-12
Identifier: 281694
doi: doi:10.1002/nbm.1418
Keywords: Biology · Physiological Sciences · Bacterial metabolism · Metabolic flux analysis · Metabolomics · NMR · Stable isotopes


This study introduces a stable-isotope metabolic approach employing [U-13C]glucose that, as a novelty, allows selective profiling of the human intestinal microbial metabolic products of carbohydrate food components, as well as the measurement of the kinetics of their formation pathways, in a single experiment. A well-established, validated in vitro model of human intestinal fermentation was inoculated with standardized gastrointestinal microbiota from volunteers. After culture stabilization, [U-13C] glucose was added as an isotopically labeled metabolic precursor. System lumen and dialysate samples were taken at regular intervals. Metabolite concentrations and isotopic labeling were determined by NMR, GC, and enzymatic methods. The main microbial metabolites were lactate, acetate, butyrate, formate, ethanol, and glycerol. They together accounted for a 13C recovery rate as high as 91.2%. Using an NMR chemical shift prediction approach, several minor products that showed 13C incorporation were identified as organic acids, amino acids, and various alcohols. Using computer modeling of the 12C contents and 13C labeling kinetics, the metabolic fluxes in the gut microbial pathways for synthesis of lactate, formate, acetate, and butyrate were determined separately for glucose and unlabeled background substrates. This novel approach enables the study of the modulation of human intestinal function by single nutrients, providing a new rational basis for achieving control of the short-chain fatty acids profile by manipulating substrate and microbiota composition in a purposeful manner. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.