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Moderators of the longitudinal relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play in children: The KOALA birth cohort study

Author: Remmers, T. · Kann, D. van · Gubbels, J. · Schmidt, S. · Vries, S. de · Ettema, D. · Kremers, S.P.J. · Thijs, C.
Source:International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 1, 11
Identifier: 524098
doi: doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0150-8
Article number: 150
Keywords: Health · Interaction · Moderation · Parenting · Perceived physical environment · Physical activity · Social environment · Child · Child parent relation · Cohort analysis · Environment · Female · Health care delivery · longitudinal study · Major clinical study · Male · Outside play · Parent · Parental attitude · Perceived physical environment · Play · Responsibility · Season · Social capital · Healthy for Life · Healthy Living · Behavioural Changes · LS - Life Style · ELSS - Earth, Life and Social Sciences


Promoting unstructured outside play is a promising vehicle to increase children's physical activity (PA). This study investigates if factors of the social environment moderate the relationship between the perceived physical environment and outside play. Study design: 1875 parents from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study reported on their child's outside play around age five years, and 1516 parents around age seven years. Linear mixed model analyses were performed to evaluate (moderating) relationships among factors of the social environment (parenting influences and social capital), the perceived physical environment, and outside play at age five and seven. Season was entered as a random factor in these analyses. Results: Accessibility of PA facilities, positive parental attitude towards PA and social capital were associated with more outside play, while parental concern and restriction of screen time were related with less outside play. We found two significant interactions; both involving parent perceived responsibility towards child PA participation. Conclusion: Although we found a limited number of interactions, this study demonstrated that the impact of the perceived physical environment may differ across levels of parent responsibility. © Remmers et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.