systematic review assessed aspects of physical load during work and leisure time as risk factors for back pain. It is based on a strict systematic approach to identify and summarize the evidence, comparable with that applied in the clinical literature on the efficacy of intervention for back pain. A computerized bibliographical search was made of several databases for studies with a cohort or case-referent design. Cross-sectional studies were excluded. A rating system was used to assess the strength of the evidence, based on the methodological quality of 28 cohort and 3 case-referent studies and the consistency of the findings. Strong evidence exists for manual materials handling, bending and twisting, and whole-body vibration as risk factors for back pain. The evidence was moderate for patient handling and heavy physical work, and no evidence was found for standing or walking, sitting, sports, and total leisure-time physical activity. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.