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Study to the effectiveness of the UNECE Heavy Metals Protocol and costs of possible additional measures. Phase I: Estimation of emission reduction resulting from the implementation of the HM Protocol

Author: Denier van der Gon, H.A.C. · Bolscher, M. van het · Visschedijk, A.J.H. · Zandveld, P.Y.J.
Publisher: TNO
Place: Apeldoorn
Institution: TNO Industrie en Techniek TNO Milieu, Energie en Procesinnovatie
Identifier: 254660
Report number: B&O-A R 2005/193
Keywords: Environment · Heavy metals · Emission inventory · Europe · Pb · Cd · Hg · As · Cr · Cu · Ni · Sc · Zn


In 1998 the UNECE Protocols for Heavy Metals (HM) and Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP) were signed by 35 countries and the European Commission. The Now that the protocols are in force, the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) has asked TNO to execute a study to the effectiveness of the UNECE Heavy Metals Protocol and Persistent Organic Pollutants Protocol and an assessment of possible additional measures with their reductions and costs, based on projections of 2000 emission data to the years 2010, 2015 and 2020. The study consists of two phases. Phase I comprises the construction of an emission inventory for the year 2000, including actualisation of emission data and projections for 2010, 2015 and 2020, geographical allocation of these emissions, efficiency of the current protocols and a preliminary inventory of possible additional reduction measures.