Crownwalls are often placed on top of vertical composite breakwaters to reduce overtopping. Adding a seawards facing overhang at the top of crownwalls has successfully reduced overtopping even further without increasing the freeboard of the crownwall. Crownwalls with a fully curv
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Crownwalls are often placed on top of vertical composite breakwaters to reduce overtopping. Adding a seawards facing overhang at the top of crownwalls has successfully reduced overtopping even further without increasing the freeboard of the crownwall. Crownwalls with a fully curved (FC) face are most often used in seawalls where they are subjected to wave load by breaking waves. However, it has recently become of interest to explore the possibility of using the fully curved shape for vertical breakwater crownwalls instead of a crownwall with a recurve (R). This thesis aimed to investigate further the wave loading by non-breaking waves and the dynamic response of a FC crownwall on a vertical breakwater through an offline one-way coupling of a CFD-generated pressure-time series and a FEM model in Diana FEA. The results were then compared to those of other studies on the wave load and dynamic response of a R crownwall. Pressure-time series from CFD numerical simulations of three wave states (W5, W6 and W7) were analysed to determine how the structure was loaded. The analysis of the pressure-time series showed that for the smallest wave state, W5, the pressure distribution at the moment of maximum total force was trapezoidal. However, for the larger wave states, W6 and W7, there was a pressure peak at the top of the curve of the crownwall due to the C-CI phenomenon. Waves with impulsive pressure and force impacts were found in all wave states, and the pressure and force impulses were much less variable than the maximum pressure and force values. Dynamic nonlinear analysis showed the fully curved crownwall cracks under wave load by wave states 6 and 7. Cracking occurs at the centre of the curve, where the largest tensile stresses are located. Comparing the results to those of the recurved crownwall, it was concluded that the fully curved crownwall was less favourable than the recurved crownwall. For the same wave states, the FC crownwall was subjected to larger wave forces than the R crownwall, which led to a larger bending moment exerted on the structure. The FC crownwall is also larger than the R crownwall, with the same freeboard, and therefore requires more use of concrete. Due to the shape of the FC crownwall, the maximum tensile stresses are 2.5-3 times higher than those in the R crownwall. More use of steel reinforcement bars is therefore also needed. It would, however, be interesting to investigate further FC crownwalls on vertical breakwaters with different geometries, e.g. radius of the curve, to see if their design can be improved. The applicability of the extended Goda method for calculating static wave load on recurved crownwalls was also investigated for the FC crownwall. It was found that for waves with wave steepness less than 6% and vertical wave velocity less than 2.4 m/s, the calculation method could be used for a preliminary design. However, the dynamic response of the structure must be addressed in the final design, e.g. with a dynamic analysis or the DAF method.