Virtual Operating Room Simulation Setup (VORSS) for Procedural Training in Minimally Invasive Surgery

a Pilot Study

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Virtual reality (VR) training is widely used in several minimal invasive surgery (MIS) training curricula for procedural training. However, VR training in its current state lack immersive training environments, such as using head-mounted displays that is implemented in military or aviation training and even entertainment. The virtual operating room simulation setup (VORSS) is explored in this study to determine the effectiveness of immersive training in MIS. Twenty-eight surgeons and surgical trainees performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the VORSS comprising of a head-mounted 360-degree realistic OR surrounding on a VR laparoscopic simulator. The VORSS replicated a full setup of instruments and surgical team-members as well as some of the distractions occurring during surgical procedures. Questionnaires were followed by semi-structured interviews to collect the data. Experts and novices found the VORSS to be intuitive and easy to use (p = 0.001). The outcome of the usability test, applying QUESI and NASA-TLX, reflected the usability of the VORSS (p < 0.05), at the cognitive level, which indicates a good sense of immersion and satisfaction, when performing the procedure within VORSS. The need for personalized experience within the setup was strongly noted from most of the participants. The VORSS for procedural training has the potential to become a useful tool to provide immersive training in MIS surgery. Further optimizing of the VORSS realism and introduction of distractors in the OR should result in an improvement of the system.