A review and framework of Control Authority Transitions in automated driving

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The paper reviews some of the essentials of human-machine interaction in
automated driving, focusing on control authority transitions. We
introduce a driving state model describing the human monitoring level
and the allocation of lateral and longitudinal control tasks. An
authority transition in automated driving is defined as the process of
changing from one static state of driving to another static state. Based
on (1) who initiates the transition and (2) who is in control after the
transition, we categorize transitions into four types: driver-initiated
driver control (DIDC), driver-initiated automation control (DIAC),
automation-initiated driver control (AIDC), and automation-initiated
automation control (AIAC). Finally, we discuss the effects of
human-machine interfaces on driving performance during transitions.