Does PSS help to increase circularity? A framework for the circular design process and case study of five pilots in the Dutch infrastructure sector

More Info


The circular economy (CE) has been established as one of the leading strategies to achieve a more sustainable system leading to national and global goals. One of the models coupled with CE is Product-Service Systems (PSS), with service integrated into products to various degree. PSS implementation in the infrastructure sector has been studied to a limited extent, with evidence of circularity lacking. This study analyzed five PSS infrastructure assets: bridge deck, guide rails, road lights, and municipal and provincial roads. Circularity improved in the design, input materials, and availability of secondary materials. A three-step framework is suggested to enable a circular process: incorporating R-strategies and circularity metrics during design, tracking material circularity, and evaluating implemented metrics and strategies. We suggest mandatory data collection by law to allow traceability, transparency, and the establishment of a secondary resource market.