Generic surgical process model for minimally invasive liver treatment methods

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Surgical process modelling is an innovative approach that aims to simplify the challenges involved in improving surgeries through quantitative analysis of a well-established model of surgical activities. In this paper, surgical process model strategies are applied for the analysis of different Minimally Invasive Liver Treatments (MILTs), including ablation and surgical resection of the liver lesions. Moreover, a generic surgical process model for these differences in MILTs is introduced. The generic surgical process model was established at three different granularity levels. The generic process model, encompassing thirteen phases, was verified against videos of MILT procedures and interviews with surgeons. The established model covers all the surgical and interventional activities and the connections between them and provides a foundation for extensive quantitative analysis and simulations of MILT procedures for improving computer-assisted surgery systems, surgeon training and evaluation, surgeon guidance and planning systems and evaluation of new technologies.