Tensile and shear resistance of bolted connectors in steel-FRP hybrid beams

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Demountable connectors have been rarely applied in steel-FRP hybrid structures due to the lack of research, which could prove their reliable structural performance. In typical applications, e.g. in multi-girder hybrid decks, the connectors are not only subjected to longitudinal shear forces, but also to substantial tensile forces originated from the uneven load distribution between the girders. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of three types of bolted connectors in steel-FRP hybrid structures by examining their shear and tensile resistance. To that end, push-out and pull-out tests were conducted to determine respectively, the shear and tensile strengths of the connectors. The suitability of the connectors in typical multi-girder hybrid steel-FRP deck applications is concluded from the test results.