OpenACC GPU implementation of double-stage delay-multiply-and-sum algorithm

Toward enhanced real-time linear-array photoacoustic tomography

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Double-stage delay-multiply-and-sum (DS-DMAS) is one of the algorithms proposed for photoacoustic image reconstruction where a linear-array transducer is used to detect signals. This algorithm provides a higher contrast image in comparison with the conventional delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS) and delay-and-sum (DAS), but it imposes a high computational complexity. In this paper, open accelerators (OpenACC) GPU computation parallel approach is used to lessen the computational time and address the high computational time of the DSDMAS for photoacoustic image reconstruction process. Compared with sequential execution of the DS-DMAS on CPU, a speed-up of approximately 74× is achieved (for an image having 1024 × 1024 pixels). The proposed approach provides possibility to have an accurate reconstructed photoacoustic image with a reasonable frame rate. In addition, the higher the number of the image pixels, the higher speed-up is achieved. Using the suggested GPU implementation, it is feasible to reconstruct photoacoustic images having a size of 128 × 128, and 256 × 256 with a frame rate of 3 and 2, respectively.