Hydrogen as seasonal energy storage for Floriade

The implications of hydrogen in the built environment as part of an energy system

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Hydrogen is known for a variety of applications and is often associated with The Energy Transition. This thesis aims to explore the possibilities of applying hydrogen as a seasonal buffer of renewable energy. The research is applied to the case study Floriade, which is a neighborhood currently under development and set to be completed in 2022. The research consists of four parts, each of which contributes the integral design of an energy system that incorporates hydrogen as a seasonal buffer. The first part focusses on the design of the energy system and the elements that are part of an energy system. Multiple energy system designs, including systems without hydrogen incorporated are evaluated. A multiple criteria analysis is undertaken in order to come to a design with an optimal configuration of elements. The system layout and components are dependent on the energy demand and the production potential of the neighborhood. The energy demand and the production capacity is calculated with an energy model, which is described in the second part of the research. Multiple software packages are used to calculate and validate data necessary for the research. The consumption and production data are used to make up the balance of energy consumption and production. The energy balance is used to calculate the efficiency of the energy system. The efficiency determines the feasibility in terms of energy losses and gains. This is described in the third part of the thesis. The overall system efficiency are calculated and the added value of storing renewable energy as hydrogen is evaluated. To minimize energy losses by means of transport all system components for making and storing hydrogen are located in one building in a central location. The final part of the thesis describes the design of this energy hub. The design of the building is based on safety measures that should be taken into account when introducing hydrogen in the built environment. The research results in the design of an energy system in which hydrogen is applied as a season buffer for renewable energy. The aspects of both energy system design as well as the application of hydrogen in de built environment are evaluated to draw conclusions on the opportunities and challenges of applying hydrogen as a seasonal buffer.