Effects of pore water-rock reaction on heat extraction from the karst geothermal reservoirs

Based on the dual media model

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Fractures and caves are the main flow and storage channels for the karst geothermal reservoirs, and the water-rock reaction within them significantly affects the thermal performance. Most previous studies concentrated on the fractures, disregarding the impact of the pore water-rock reaction. The objective of this study is to explore the importance of pore water-rock reactions and identify the influence of various parameters when considering pore and fracture water-rock reactions. A 3D thermal-hydraulic-chemical coupling model considering dual media of pores and fractures was developed. The importance of pore water-rock reactions is demonstrated, and quantitatively characterize the effect of injection temperature (Tin), injection rate (Qin), injection concentration (cin), and ratio of the reaction-specific surface area between pore and fracture (Ap/Af) on the thermal performance. Results indicate that the pore water-rock reaction drastically affects the hydraulic conductivity and pressure difference, even leading to an opposite trend. The influence of water-rock reaction in pores on fracture deformation is regulated by Ap/Af, which augments with Ap/Af. The relative contribution of Ap/Af to production temperature, net thermal power, pressure difference, and hydraulic conductivity are 12.8%, 4.1%, 6.8%, and 13.7%, respectively. This study provides a significant guide for accurate production prediction and exploitation of karst-based geothermal reservoirs.