Space–time computations of exactly time-periodic flows past hydrofoils

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The computation of periodic flows is typically conducted over multiple periods. First, a number of periods is used to develop periodic characteristics, and afterwards statistics are collected from averages over multiple periods. As a consequence, it is uncertain whether the numerical results are exactly time-periodic, and additionally, the time domain might be needlessly long. In this article, we circumvent these concerns by using a time-periodic function space. Consequently, the boundary conditions and solutions are exactly periodic. We employ the isogeometric analysis framework to achieve higher-order smoothness in both space and time. The discretization is performed using residual-based variational multiscale modeling and weak boundary conditions are adopted to enhance the accuracy near the moving boundaries of the computational domain. We enforce the time-periodic boundary condition within the isogeometric discretization spaces, which converts the two-dimensional time-dependent problem into a three-dimensional boundary value problem. Furthermore, we determine the boundary velocities of moving hydrofoils directly from the computational mesh and use a conservation methodology for force extraction. Application of the computational setup to heaving and pitching hydrofoils displays very accurate and exactly periodic results for lift and drag.