Environomic-Based Social Demand Response in Cyber-Physical-Social Power Systems

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According to the Department of Energy, demand response provides an opportunity for end-users to play a significant role in the efficiency, reliability, resilience, and sustainability of a power grid. This is made possible owing to the existence of storage devices and diversity of energy sources at the customer level and the advent of the Internet of Things. Social influences and psychological traits of consumers affect their behavior and decision-making. Consequently, there is a necessity to bring the influences of humans, organizations, and societies on the power system together through computational social science into a cyber-physical-social system. Hence, in this brief, we introduce our development of an artificial society of the social demand response of a power system, a well-known approach in computational sociology based on a bottom-up approach, starting from theory. We assume that consumers can engage in demand response to fulfill two aims: save their cost or enhance the sustainability of a power system. The literature concerning sustainability-based demand response is limited to only considering CO2, NOX, and SO2. In addition to NOX, and SO2, we examine the impact of power systems on water pollution, disability-adjusted loss of life year, and exergy in demand response, and provide an environomic-based social demand response. We show that when the level of satisfaction and cooperation of end-user is low, the marginal level of load shaving and improvement in sustainability cannot be fulfilled.