On vanishing gains in robust adaptation of switched systems

A new leakage-based result for a class of Euler–Lagrange dynamics

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In the presence of unmodelled dynamics and uncertainties with no a priori constant bounds, conventional robust adaptation strategies for switched systems cannot allow the control gains of inactive subsystems to remain constant during inactive intervals: vanishing gains are typically required in order to prove bounded stability. As a consequence, these strategies, known in literature as leakage-based adaptive methods, might introduce poor transients at each switching instant. Leakage-based adaptive control becomes even more problematic in the switched nonlinear case, where non-conservative state-dependent upper bounds for uncertainties and unmodelled dynamics are required. This work shows that, for a class of switched Euler–Lagrange systems, such difficulties can be mitigated: a novel leakage-based stable mechanism is introduced which allows the gains of inactive subsystems to remain constant. At the same time, unmodelled dynamics and uncertainties with no a priori bounds can be handled by a quadratic state-dependent upper bound structure that reduces conservativeness as compared to state-of-the-art structures. The proposed design is validated analytically and its performance is studied in simulation with a pick-and-place robotic manipulator example.