Estimation of direct energy consumption and CO<sub>2</sub> emission by high speed rail, transrapid maglev and hyperloop passenger transport systems

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This paper deals with estimation of direct energy consumption and related emissions of GHG exclusively, including CO2, by the High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), and Hyperloop (HL) passenger transport systems. This includes developing the corresponding analytical models based on the mechanical energy and applying them according to the specified what-if operating scenarios. The analogous models are developed and applied to the Air Passenger Transport (APT) system for comparison purposes. The results of the application of the proposed models under given conditions have indicated that the average and total energy consumption and related emission of CO2 of the three systems have been generally sensitive, i.e. elastic to variations of the nonstop journey distance and the vehicle/train seating capacity. Their average values have decreased more than proportionally and total values in proportion with increasing of the nonstop journey distance. Both have decreased with increasing of the vehicle/train seating capacity per departure. In the case of supplying equivalent equally utilized transport capacities, the HSR and the TRM have had lower energy consumption and related emission of CO2 than the HL system. As well, the HSR, the TRM, and the HL have had lower energy consumption and related CO2 emission than the selected APT aircraft up to some ‘breaking’ journey distance under given what-if operating scenarios.