Changing Urban Temperature and Rainfall Patterns in Jakarta

A Comprehensive Historical Analysis

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The increasing global population and in-country migration have a significant impact on global land use land cover (LULC) change, which reduces green spaces and increases built-up areas altering the near-surface radiation and energy budgets, as well as the hydrological cycle over an urban area. The LULC change can lead to a combination of hazards such as increasing urban temperatures and intensified rainfall, ultimately resulting in increased flooding. This present study aims to discuss the changing pattern in urban temperature, daily rainfall, and flooding in Jakarta. The daily urban temperature and daily rainfall were based on a 30-year dataset from three meteorological stations of Jakarta in the period between 1987 and 2013. The changing trend was analyzed by using the Mann–Kendall and the Pettitt’s tests. The relation between daily rainfall and flooding was analyzed using a 30-year flooding dataset collected from several sources including the international disaster database, research, and newspaper. The results show that there was an increasing trend in the daily temperature and the daily rainfall in Jakarta. The annual maximum daily temperature showed that an increasing trend started in 2001 at the KMY station, and in 1996 at the SHIA station. In general, the highest annual maximum daily temperature was about 37 °C, while the lowest was about 33 °C. Moreover, the maximum daily rainfall started increasing from 2001. An increase in the maximum daily rainfall was observed mainly in January and February, which coincided with the flood events recorded in these months in Jakarta. This indicates that Jakarta is not only vulnerable to high urban temperature but also to flooding. While these two hazards occur in distinct timeframes, there is potential for their convergence in the same geographical area. This study provides new and essential insights to enhance urban resilience and climate adaptation, advocating a holistic approach required to tackle these combined hazards.