# Analysis and design of side-by side mooring arrangements for LNG transfer

Analysis and design of side-by side mooring arrangements for LNG transfer: Frequency and Time domain Hydrodynamics

AuthorPopiniuc, Mihaela Valentina (TU Delft Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering)

Kaminski, Mirek (mentor)

den Besten, Henk (mentor)

Miedema, Sape (graduation committee)

Gkikas, Georgios (mentor)

Pinkster, Job (mentor)

Delft University of Technology

Date2020-01-20

AbstractThe aim of this study is to conclude which parameters are influencing the most the hydrodynamic interaction between the two moored vessels in side-by-side configuration using frequency and time domain simulations. Furthermore to show what is the added value of the hydrodynamic input used in time domain investigations using 2 different integration schemes. Ultimately identify what is the impact on the mooring arrangements and what it needs to be done to ensure safe offloading operations.During the offloading process (18 to 24 hours), the transfer equipment needs to accommodate the relative motions between the two vessels. There are several parameters which might influence the operations, which are dependent on the location (i.e. environmental conditions) and on the mooring system (i.e. vessels size, draft, mooring arrangements, etc.). The side-by-side mooring system analyzed consists of a turret moored FLNG and various size of off-take carriers. A sensitivity analysis is done with respect to the physical parameters (i.e ship dimensions, loading conditions and separation distance) and modelling parameters (i.e parameters dependent on damping factor) in order to determine the effects on the first and second order quantities using frequency domain analysis. This represents the input for time domain numerical investigations in order to assess the relative motions and line tensions under certain environmental conditions.It is known that the diffraction-radiation tools overestimate the results in the gap region. This is an effect of using potential flow which do not count for viscous effects. To overcome this problem and to describe in a realistic mode, multiple methods or numerical techniques has been proposed. With this regard a detailed numerical investigation has been carried out to conclude what is the impact of varying the dissipation factor (i.e between 0 and 0.4) on first and second order quantities.Traditionally, the relative motions are determined using experimental tests which might be time-consuming. In particular for sensitivity analysis, numerical investigations are preferred in order to shape a main conclusion. Ultimately some of the results can be validated thorough experiments.The hydrodynamic interaction revealed important aspects, especially with respect to the off-take carrier. If the carrier is smaller the impact is higher due to the presence of the FLNG. Such that the carrier rolls significantly when there are head or following seas. Furthermore decrease in heave motion of the FLNG at the resonance frequency due to the roll of the carrier has been noticed. The same phenomena occur for heave of the carrier. Thus, this represents a strong coupling between heave-roll motion of the two vessels. Another important aspect revealed is with the respect to the shielding effects under beam conditions. In general FLNG is slightly influenced by the presence of the carrier. In particular, it can be noticed only when it is in ballast condition due to the fact that the draft and thus the displacement of the carrier is considerably higher. The sensitivity analysis points out that the modelling parameters (i.e dissipation factor) does hardly influence the response of the vessels even if it is considered or not. On the other hand drift forces are highly dependent on these parameters as a consequence of sharp changes of the wave elevations between the vessels. Such that if there is no dissipation factor to damp the wave elevation the resulted forces are extremely high compare to the cases where the dissipation factor is different than 0. This occurs only at the wave gap resonance and towards higher frequency region when diffraction effects are important. This is emphasized by the time domain analysis which prove that under the sea-states close to the gap resonance the lines and fenders tension reaches extreme magnitudes. Outside the gap resonance the relative motions and tensions are not influenced by the variation of the dissipation factor.The moored system (i.e FLNG-LNGC or FLNG-LPGC) is governed relatively by long crested waves. Thus it is expected to have higher line loads under these sea-states. The actual mooring design shows that under squall conditions (i.e Tp of 14s) the mooring lines exceeds the safe working limit for the FLNG-LNGC, while for FLNG-LPGC exceeds the minimum breaking load. In terms of relative motions for the same environmental conditions, the criteria is not satisfied. The proposed optimization of the mooring lines does bring reduction in the mooring line tensions, but not enough to drop below safe working limit for FLNG-LPGC configuration. On the other hand for FLNG-LNGC, the line tension is within the limits, but the relative motions still exceeds the criteria. Therefore choosing the optimum mooring configuration is a trade-off between line stiffness and location of the connection points of the mooring lines which sometimes may lead to unpractical solutions.

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Embargo date2025-01-31

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