Safety Performance Boundary Identification of Highly Automated Vehicles: A Surrogate Model-Based Gradient Descent Searching Approach
Wang, Y. (TU Delft Transport and Planning; Tongji University)
Yu, Rongjie (Tongji University)
Qiu, Shuhan (Tongji University)
SUN, J. (Tongji University)
Farah, H. (TU Delft Transport and Planning)
Transport and Planning
Highly automated vehicles (HAVs) have been introduced to the transportation system for the purpose of providing safer mobility. Considering the expected long co-existence period of HAVs and human-driven vehicles (HDVs), the safety operation of HAVs interacting with HDVs needs to be verified. To achieve this, HAVs' Operational Design Domain (ODD) needs to be identified under the scenario-based testing framework. In this study, a novel testing framework aiming at identifying the Safety performance boundary (SPB) is proposed, which assures the coverage of safety-critical scenarios and compatible with the black-box feature of HAV control algorithm. A surrogate model was utilized to approximate the safety performance of HAV, and a gradient descent searching algorithm was employed to accelerate the search for SPB. For empirical analyses, a three-vehicle following scenario was adopted and the Intelligent Driver Model (IDM) was tested as a case study. The results show that only 4% of the total scenarios are required to establish a reliable surrogate model. And the gradient descent algorithm was able to establish the SPB by identifying 97.42% of collision scenarios and only false alarming 0.29% of non-collision scenarios. Furthermore, the concept of safety tolerance was proposed to measure the possibilities of boundary scenarios dropping in safety performance. The applications of helping to construct ODD and compare different control algorithms were discussed. It shows that the IDM performs better than the Wiedemann 99 (W99) model with larger ODD.
To reference this document use:
Highly automated vehicle
operational design domain
safety performance boundary
IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 23 (12), 23809-23820
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© 2022 Y. Wang, Rongjie Yu, Shuhan Qiu, J. SUN, H. Farah