How does learning drive sustainability transitions? Perspectives, problems and prospects from a systematic literature review

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Learning has been put forward as a critical aspect to achieve sustainable transformation of societal systems. However, there is a lack of a systematic review of empirical evidence on how learning is related to sustainability transitions. To bridge this gap, we systematically reviewed 113 empirical papers that addressed the role of learning in transitions. Our results show that the complexity of the relationship between learning and transitions is not deeply analysed and that there is a need to distinguish more precisely between learning processes and learning outcomes. Further, there is a need to shift the focus towards analysing regime-level learning to increase our understanding of how learning contributes to system transformation. Finally, networks, trust, disagreement, and power are key aspects related to learning that will require further examination, especially in terms of how they play out dynamically in learning for sustainability transitions.